Thus, collaboration among educators, speech-language pathologists, and families will be of utmost importance for treatment success. As with all children, families should be A language and speech study on children with down syndrome from the beginning of the assessment process.
In this section, we review the literature on hearing, oral-motor, cognitive, social, and prelinguistic and early nonverbal communication skills of individuals with Down syndrome.
Following treatment, the subject improved her fluency by Whereas the association between early otitis media with effusion OME and language development is mild at best for typically developing children, OME-associated hearing loss possibly presents an extra risk factor for children with Down syndrome because they are already at risk for language difficulties American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP], ; Roberts et al.
Each child with Down syndrome should have his or her language assessed to identify strengths and needs in phonology, vocabulary, syntax, pragmatics, and literacy. Still, reading skills in this population are stronger than would be predicted by phonological awareness skills, suggesting reliance on other processes in word identification tasks Cossu et al.
Finally, make sure to provide targeted and measurable [suggested] treatment goals by breaking the targets into measurable parts: Price and Kent offer more details about speech intelligibility in individuals with Down syndrome. Playing to the visual and narrative strengths seen in Down syndrome may reduce frustration when targeting advanced literacy skills.
Complex literacy skills Few studies have focused on complex literacy skills in individuals with Down syndrome, although available evidence suggests difficulties with these advanced skills.
A comparison of fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome. Although the children with Down syndrome made significant improvements in single-word reading, no change in reading comprehension was observed. For example, intervention strategies that capitalize on strengths in visual memory, such as the use of visually-oriented pictures and storybooks, may enhance learning in individuals with Down syndrome Chapman, ; Hick et al.
See Patterson and Lott for further details about etiology.
Use multiple tasks and activities to create a balanced assessment, use descriptive measures instead of standard scores to report findings, and most importantly make your assessment functional by making sure that your testing yields relevant diagnostic information which could then be effectively used to provide effective quality treatments for clients with DS!
Several studies suggest that individuals with Down syndrome face particular challenges in phoneme and syllable segmentation, sound deletion, and rhyming Cossu et al. In fact, word identification is positively associated with visual processing skills in children and adolescents with Down syndrome, even after controlling for chronological age Fidler et al.
Additional research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of specific intervention tactics. Developed specifically for their study, the test allowed the team to conduct the motor speech assessments on the children with Down syndrome, the most commonly occurring chromosomal condition in the United States.
These areas of impairment coexist with areas of relative strength, such as the ability to stay on conversational topic, content-related narrative skills, and the ability to respond to requests for clarification in order to repair communicative breakdowns.
The prognosis for spoken language acquisition is good, however. Specifically, Mundy and colleagues reported that 18—48 month-old children with Down syndrome produced fewer nonverbal requests for objects or for help with objects than mental age-matched typically developing children.
Roberts studied the speech and language development of at-risk children and children with fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, and autism. Strength in word identification has been linked to whole-word reading processes in individuals with Down syndrome. Children with Down syndrome who have motor speech disorder characteristics have historically been diagnosed as having childhood dysarthria.
In an early study of four children with Down syndrome, Coggins and Stoel-Gammon found that all four responded to all clarification requests in order to repair communication breakdowns. For example, a lesson aimed at improving plot structure knowledge or narrative comprehension might incorporate illustrations to support written text.
However, data on the early effects of OME on language development of children with Down syndrome are lacking. Though research regarding best practices for treatment have been largely limited, a new study from the University of Alberta aims to change that.
For example, it will be important to examine whether discrepant findings for receptive vocabulary relate to differences in method of assessment, ages of participants, or hearing status current or early of participants.
Otitis media with effusion. For additional strategies to optimize the language-learning environment for children with OME-related hearing loss, see AAPRoberts and colleaguesand Roberts and Wallace Accordingly, we aim to show how language and literacy competence may be affected by the cognitive-behavioral phenotype associated with a diagnosis of Down syndrome.
Several studies have shown that it is more impaired than vocabulary in both receptive and expressive domains Abbeduto et al.
He received his Ph. Parents should do the following: Vocabulary Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the receptive vocabulary skills of individuals with Down syndrome. In summary, most evidence suggests that expressive vocabulary is delayed beyond expectations for mental age in young individuals with Down syndrome.
Summary In conclusion, many individuals with Down syndrome are capable of achieving some level of literacy competence given instruction and exposure to print.
Regardless of the particular intervention used, generalization of targeted skills should be considered from the beginning of any treatment program.
Requests for shared attention, however, may constitute another area of relative strength. Kay-Raining Bird and colleagues also found that phonological memory predicted word attack ability 4. Document the number of redirections and negotiations the child needed to participate as well as types and level of reinforcement used during testing.The results of this study are important for speech pathologists and parents who are looking for evidence-based treatment techniques for children with Down Syndrome.
More effective speech therapy approach for children with Down Syndrome Date: February 5, Source: University of Vermont Summary: Children with Down syndrome who have motor speech.
Given the common speech intelligibility and phonological problems of children with Down syndrome, speech production should be assessed in connected speech in addition to single words to determine sound accuracy and the occurrence of phonological processes. the language and communication characteristics of individuals with Down syndrome.
The provision of speech and language therapy services for children with Down syndrome is a controversial issue. Families receive different services depending on where they live, and the knowledge and interest of local speech and language therapists in the specific needs of children with Down syndrome.
This article is an attempt to provide guidelines for speech and language therapists.
A new study indicates that children with Down syndrome who have motor speech deficits have been inadequately diagnosed, which could have a major impact on the interventions used by speech. The aim was to improve the structure of the language used by teenagers with Down syndrome.
Twelve teenagers took part in the study, which involved Developing the speech and language skills of teenagers with Down syndrome. Sue Buckley.Download